New survey finds, one in seven wildlife rangers have been seriously injured over the past year in the line of duty

Posted on July, 31 2018

New results released by WWF to mark World Ranger Day, reveal that one in seven wildlife rangers (14 percent) surveyed across Asia and Central Africa have been seriously injured at work within the last 12 months.

July 31, 2018: New results released by WWF to mark World Ranger Day, reveal that one in seven wildlife rangers (14 percent) surveyed across Asia and Central Africa have been seriously injured at work within the last 12 months. The results, part of the largest ever survey on ranger employment conditions and welfare, come as the official death toll from July 2017-18 has been confirmed by the International Ranger Federation (IRF) & Thin Green Line Foundation (TGLF) as 107 – up from 101 last year.


This brings the total number of reported rangers who have lost their lives in the line of duty to 871* since 2009, which is when IRF and TGLF, started to officially record the incidents. However, experts believe the actual number of deaths to be much higher than the reported number.


“The stats this year, forty-eight rangers of the 107 lost this year were murdered at their place of work whilst protecting wildlife that we all care about. Another 50 died in work place accidents due to the dangerous nature of a rangers life.  But these are not just statistics, these are men and women, rangers, who leave families behind, often with little support except for what we can provide. As a world community we need to do more and we have to do better in training and equipping rangers so that they have a greater chance of returning home to their families after a patrol,” said Sean Willmore, President of the IRF and Founder of its charity arm, TGLF.


WWF’s survey, which will be published later this year, has been completed by rangers working in Asia and Central Africa. WWF is also currently conducting the survey in East Africa. These regions are renowned as the most dangerous for the profession due to high levels of poaching to feed the demand for illegal wildlife trade products, largely coming from China and neighbouring countries.  


World over we’re facing a rapid decline in nature including some of our most beloved species. Rangers are on the front line of protecting much of this iconic wildlife and due to the very nature of their job, it comes as little or no surprise that they risk facing life-threatening situations. What is shocking is that despite their willingness to bear these grave risks to help save our shared wildlife, few are receiving fair pay, insurance and adequate training,” said Rohit Singh WWF’s Zero Poaching Lead & President Ranger Federation of Asia.


An overwhelming majority (86 per cent) of rangers think their job is dangerous due to the grave risks associated with encountering or confronting poachers. Recent tragic incidents show that these concerns are not unfounded.


This year saw the murder of, Rachel Katumwa, the first female ranger thought to be killed whilst on duty in Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Just a month prior to Rachel’s murder in the same area, suspected members of an armed militia group that were involved in poaching activity gunned down five wildlife rangers and their driver. It was the worst attack in Virunga’s history and the latest in a long line of tragic incidents in which rangers have lost their lives defending the planet’s natural heritage.


Despite high risks from armed poachers, dangerous encounters with wildlife and exposure to infectious diseases like malaria, only 15 per cent of the rangers surveyed had been trained in first aid within the last year and almost six out of ten (58 per cent) felt that when most in need of medical treatment, the services they received were not sufficient.


In Asia, on average a ranger gets paid USD 292 per month, and in Central Africa USD 150 per month– most often this is the main (or only) source of income for their families. The survey also highlights the concerning lack of insurance for rangers and their dependents. Despite life-changing injuries and death so commonplace within the profession, just 36 per cent indicated that they had insurance coverage for such situations. Should rangers become injured and are no longer able to work - or worse yet are killed - in the line of duty, the entire family are left vulnerable to a life of poverty.


“Nothing can compensate those that have sacrificed their lives and livelihoods to protect our wildlife but we hope that by bringing to light these challenges, urgent steps will be taken to address them and in turn improve the lives and working conditions of rangers and their families,” comments  Drew McVey,  East Africa Wildlife Crime Technical Advisor, WWF.


WWF is calling upon governments to urgently review and improve shortcomings that are endangering the lives of wildlife rangers. Adequate training – including widely adopted first aid training for rangers - strong emergency medical treatment plans, as well as equipment and communications devices appropriate for field conditions should be among the matters most urgently needing a review. Additionally, 100% insurance coverage for serious injuries and loss of life is a critical next step for rangers and their families.


At the upcoming London Conference on Illegal Wildlife Trade, taking place in October this year, we must see commitments from world leaders in countries where wildlife poaching occurs to ensure they have adequate numbers of properly equipped, trained and insured rangers. WWF hopes to work closely with these governments and other concerned partners to ensure rangers are recognized and supported with the respect as other public service professions putting their lives on the line to work towards providing us all with a better world.




Manzoor Ahmad, Wildlife Inspector, Punjab Wildlife and Parks Department

Manzoor Ahmad along with another wildlife official, Constable Mushtaq from the special squad in Gujranwala region, Punjab Wildlife and Parks Department, was shot dead by poachers involved in illegal hunting of migratory birds in Sialkot on 20 September 2017. Manzoor is survived by an elderly mother, a wife and seven children.

Manzoor was stationed at the Punjab Wildlife and Park Department in Punjab, Pakistan as Wildlife Inspector in the special squad, dedicated to monitor and intercept poaching and illegal hunting. He joined the department in 1984. His last annual salary was 4,320 USD after 34 years of service in the same department. He belonged to the same province where he spent his entire professional life.  

Interview from friend and colleague of Manzoor Ahmed


What is your favourite memory of Manzoor Ahmad

He loved being in the field and preferred to spend most of his time outside the confines of his comfortable office. He was so dedicated and would spend his time patrolling and monitoring even when he had the choice to skip gruelling fieldwork and relax back in office. Manzoor was always cheerful despite the long working hours, which would often span over 16 hours a day. He had a demanding job and would be often working over the weekends leaving him little time to spend with us. However, whenever he would be at home he would keep everyone happy. His fascinating stories from his adventures in the field dealing with the poachers would be a source of inspiration to us.  We remember him as a loving husband and father, and a wonderful friend. He was always so popular because of his affectionate personality. We’ve received many messages of condolences not just from friends and colleagues but also strangers.

What did Manzoor love about being a wildlife ranger? 

Being part of the raid party, he was trained to patrol and apprehend illegal hunting and poaching of wildlife. We often saw him getting emotional over the killing of a tiny bird or Urial. Always jovial, the only time we would see him upset was when he would find a dead animal or when a poacher would get away. He always used to say that wildlife are creatures from heaven and he feels blessed to have been given the responsibility of protecting and saving these innocent lives from been hunted and killed. He believed that because of his job he learnt the significance of nature and felt immense pride that he could save wildlife species for our future generations.

Was Manzoor the sole breadwinner in the family? How is the family now supported?

Yes, like many men in our society, he was the sole breadwinner of the family as the kids are still in school. His death has left us shattered emotionally as well as financially. However, since he was a government employee; we receive a nominal pension and some other associated benefits from the government.


What message do you think Manzoor would give to others about his/her work? 

We have lost the bread-winner and leader of our family. We are positive that Manzoor’s work was able to make a difference to the cause of protecting wildlife. We hope that his death, in the line of duty, has inspired his fellow rangers and has brought awareness amongst people about the importance of wildlife and the need for conserving them. The devotion and tireless efforts of Manzoor and his fellow rangers highlight the commitment of Pakistani wildlife rangers’ to protect endangered and iconic wildlife species and their habitats, despite limited resources and inadequate training.

Manzoor is a symbol of the dedication of our unsung conservation heroes who lay their lives for protecting wildlife. They all share a common purpose of conserving the biodiversity of Pakistan,

and because of their efforts, Pakistan boasts of majestic landscapes, and iconic biodiversity some of which are unique to the country.

What has life been like since you lost Manzoor Ahmad?

Manzoor’s death is a huge loss to not only his family, friends and colleagues but the entire conservation efforts in Pakistan. The country has suffered a huge setback in losing one of its most committed rangers.

We had not realized the dangerous nature of his job until the day we got the news of his death. His colleagues also never foresaw this. With him gone, life has become very challenging for us and it will take us years to overcome his loss.

We like to try and remain positive and see the bright side. Manzoor’s sacrifice has sparked concerns in Pakistan on the dangerous nature of a ranger’s job. This is probably the first time that the issue has been picked up in the media and brought to centre-stage in government forums, highlighting the need for policies and initiatives to equip field rangers with training and resources to make their work conditions less hostile.

What are your hopes for other families of wildlife rangers?

We learnt about the dangerous and challenging nature of his work after Manzoor was gone. I believe most wildlife rangers around the world work in extremely hostile conditions without been aware of the dangerous nature of their jobs. There is very limited knowledge of the working conditions, challenges, resource crunch, and capacity gaps of the wildlife and forest department officials in Pakistan. It is extremely critical to address their needs and influence the government to develop policies to provide them with a safe work environment, which our wildlife heroes deserve.

It is reassuring that some provinces have recently introduced regulations that offer monetary compensation to the families of rangers who lost their lives during the course of duty and also offer insurance to support medical expenses of injured officials. However, these efforts are very limited when compared with the scale and scope of wildlife poaching and illegal trade in the region.

Notes to editor:

For more information please contact

Lianne Mason | WWF |


*Source- International Ranger Federation & Thin Green Line Foundation


About WWF

WWF is one of the world’s largest and most respected independent conservation organizations, with over 5 million supporters and a global network active in more than 100 countries and territories. WWF's mission is to stop the degradation of the Earth's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by conserving the world's biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable, and promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption. Visit for the latest news and media resources and follow us on Twitter @WWF_media

Rangers have to endure dangerous work conditions.
© WWF-Thailand / Baramee Temboonkiat.

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