In 2008, during the 2nd Heart of Borneo Trilateral Meeting, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia and Malaysia agreed on Trinational Action Plans to conserve Heart of Borneo and committed towards the transboundary conservation programme.
The Strategic Plan of Actions (SPA)
consists of five main programs and was detailed into 21 proposed actions.
Program 1: Transboundary management
To address issues of management of natural resources and socio-economic welfare of local people on the border areas.
It’s important for the participating countries to enhance transboundary collaboration through the HoB Initiative to improve forest management and other land uses.
Agricultural pressures, proposals for road building, the timber industry, the economic development at the border areas and fulfilment of subsistence needs of local people are among the complex issues that threaten the forests and wildlife in the area.
Program 2: Protected Areas Management
To enhance and promote effective management of protected areas within the HoB area, with the emphasis at those situated on the common border, in order to conserve and maintain forest biodiversity and the ecological linkages.
The role of protected areas becomes increasingly important to withstand the high pressure on the Borneo rainforest. Thus, effective management of protected areas is vital to conserve the biological richness in the protected areas not only in HoB area but in areas that has been declared as such.
Program 3: Sustainable Natural Resources Management
To manage the natural resources outside the protected areas network through the development and implementation of sustainable land uses.
It is in the interests of all the three participating countries to have extensive forests in adjacent areas in order to ensure the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, management of watersheds, conservation and benefit sharing of biodiversity richness, carbon stocks, and other environmental services.
Program 4: Ecotourism Development
To recognise and protect the value of special natural and cultural places or sites within the HoB area.
Development of ecotourism is a main focus for socio-economic development within the HoB. The development of ecotourism in the HoB area must be developed in accordance with the respective countries tourism plan.
Program 5: Capacity Building
To ensure the effective implementation of HoB initiative at all levels, both public & private sectors and at the local community.
Borneo is home to around 16 million people and a large percentage of the population are heavily dependent on agricultural products and forest produce for their livelihoods.
In order to manage forest resources in a sustainable manner, it is important to build the capacity of relevant stakeholders – at the management, technical and operation levels –to ensure the success of this initiative.