Forest and Terrestrial Species Programme
Asia/Pacific > Southeast Asia > Indonesia
Asia/Pacific > Southeast Asia > Indonesia > Irian Jaya
Asia/Pacific > Southeast Asia > Indonesia > Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo)
Asia/Pacific > Southeast Asia > Indonesia > Sumatra
Forest degradation, forest conversion, and wildlife poaching and trade are still the main threats for biodiversity conservation and sustainable natural resource management in Indonesia.
Illegal logging, forest encroachment and unsustainable forest management system implemented by the concession holders are the direct factors contributing to the forest degradation in Indonesia. Forest degradation does not only happen in production forests but it is also occurs in protected forests such as nature reserves, national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.
Important indirect factors contributing to the high rate of forest degradation in Indonesia are:
- Lack of government capacity in term of funding and sufficient number of competent field officers.
- Lack of law enforcement (in some cases it is also related to corruption).
- Poverty of the communities living in and adjacent to the forests.
- Unclear community’s rights (management and utilization rights).
Natural forest conversion
Palm oil plantations and forest plantations are the top 2 direct causes of forest conversion. To a lesser degree, mining (big corporations and small scale community mining), oil and gas, other plantations and infrastructure development also contribute to forest conversion in Indonesia.
Forest conversion is happening legally (in forests with conversion status under legitimate permits) or in many forms illegality, e.g. done by communities or corporations without permits, or done with false permits such as in forests with protection, production or conservation status.
Indirect factors related to forest degradation as explained above are still relevant to explain why forest conversion is still a big threat for natural forests. In addition, the lack of sustainable land use at district and provincial levels are important additional indirect factors contributing to the natural forest conversion in Indonesia.
Wildlife hunting, killing and trade
WWF Indonesia focuses its effort in the conservation of the Sumatran tiger, Sumatran elephant, Sumatran rhino, Javan rhino and Borneo orang utan.
Except for the Javan rhino that has a relatively stable and growing population, there are strong indications that the population numbers of the Sumatran tiger, Sumatran elephant, Sumatran rhino, and Borneo orang utan are continuously decreasing.
In general, the reduction of natural habitats due to forest conversion and forest degradation are the main factors causing these populations to decrease. The reduced habitats also lead to increased human-wildlife conflicts, particularly for the Sumatran tiger and elephant and Borneo orang utan. These conflicts often are followed by the killing of animals. In addition to killing, there are hunting practices for their skin (orang utan and tiger), tusk (elephants), other body parts like teeth (tiger) and meat (orang utan). At a lesser degree, the Sumatran tiger and Borneo orang utan are also caught alive to be sold to private zoos.
Demand and market for these species (dead or alive) and parts of their bodies are still present, and unlike with illegal logging issues, government attention and political commitment to deal with this issue is very low.
- Halt and reverse the loss and degradation of forests in Indonesia.
- Protect the populations of “species of concern” in Indonesia through both in-situ (at the population and meta-population level) and ex-situ (at the national and regional level) engagement.
- Help establish new protected areas and have these effectively managed (conservation management).
- Establish at least 700,000 hectares of new forest protected areas.
> Assessed and improved management effectiveness of 5 millions ha of forest protected areas.
> Ecological integrity and resilience ensured in 2 priority ecoregions (Transfly and Heart of Borneo).
> Key populations of key species (Javan and Sumatran rhino, Sumatran tiger and elephant , Borneo orang utan) secured and their critical habitats well managed.
> 5 % reduction of exploitation (poaching, harvest, trade) of key species.
- Transform unsustainable practices of production forest management (natural forest), palm oil plantation and pulp and paper (plantation forest), i.e. sector reform.
> Certification of 1.2 million ha of natural forests, plantation forests and community forests.
> Illegal logging significantly reduced in at least 3 provinces through multi-stakeholder action plans.
> At least 5 major palm oil or pulp plantation companies develop and implement policies for enhancing biodiversity values in plantations and adjacent areas.
> At least 5 successful examples of community-based sustainable forest management (SFM), outside of protected areas.
> Initiate 4 forest restoration initiatives.
> 2 timber products sustainable harvested (ramin and gaharu).
- Develop innovative conservation financing scheme (conservation financing).
> Innovative mechanisms for sustainable conservation funding developed for 2 national parks (Tesso Nilo, Rinjani or Kayan Mentarang).
- Assist the participatory process on development of district or provincial spatial plan (sustainable land use).
> Sustainable land use established in districts and provinces of concerns (Riau, Lampung, West Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, Papua).
Outcomes of the programme
- Solid forest and terrestrial species programme strategies and targets for the conservation and business plan for 2008-2013.
- Sufficient secured funding for 2008 and 2009.
- Clear communications and coordination lines with the Heart of Borneo Network Initiative which is hosted by WWF Indonesia.
Remaining targets for 2004-2008 that still must be achieved include:
- Integration of proposed Jamursba Medi protected area (40,000 ha) into district and/or provincial spatial plans.
- Official designation of 60,000-70,000 ha extension of the Tesso Nilo national park; included in this target a) stop the park encroachment b) handle the community that already encroached the park.
- Key recommendations of the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Areas Management (RAPPAM) implemented in the national parks.
- Management plans for 3 protected areas reviewed or developed (including Betung Kerihun, Kayan Mentarang and Lorentz).
- Collaborative management established in Kayan Mentarang and Tesso Nilo national parks.
- Ecoregion action plans for Transfly and Heart of Borneo completed.
- Trust funds established for Tesso Nilo and continued efforts for Heart of Borneo.
- Payment for environmental services scheme developed in Kapuas Hulu.
- Continue forest certification process with target of 300,000 ha/year (both plantation and natural forest).
- 2 major companies and/or districts adopt policies or plans that exclude High Conservation Value Forests (HCVF) from conversion, and use ‘idle’ land for plantations.
- 3 companies/institutions sign the statement of intent of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, join and support the process of the roundtable.
- Improved local community capacity in Papua and Sumatra to reduce poverty while advancing biodiversity conservation.
- Forest landscape restoration initiatives plans in place in Rinjani, Sebangau and Danau Sentarum.
- Amount of human-elephant conflicts decreased by 50%.
- 5 companies apply best management practices that ensure tiger and elephant conservation.
- Illegal logging in Tesso Nilo decreased by 60%.
- Human-tiger conflicts in Bukit Barisan Selatan national park decreased by 60%.
- Trade for tiger parts in Bukit Barisan Selatan national park reduced by 60%.
- Quality of Javan rhino habitat improved.
- Programme to reduce poaching and trade continued so that it is no longer a threat to orang utan populations in Sebangau national park.
- Connectivity achieved between core habitats in Betung Kerihun landscape by 2010.
- Orang utan habitats outside protected areas within the Betung Kerihun landscape secured.
- Forest policy on orang utan national action plan completed.
- Investment policy in the provinces demonstrates commitment to maintaining orang utan habitat.
- Improved law enforcement to stop illegal trade of key species.
- At least 50% of poachers/traders identified and prosecuted.