Oil exploitation in the Green Heart of AfricaOil exploitation of Rabi oil-field by Shell, inside the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas, Gabon.
Whereas France once dominated the oil and timber industry in the region, today the United States has become the biggest importer of the region's oil. But China is catching up, and is fast becoming a growing competitor.3
Oil extraction practices vary from one country to another, and between companies. The environmental impacts also vary, and depend on the political and environmental pressure, or lack thereof, to minimize risks.
Not black and whiteIn a study that covered Cameroon, Papua New Guinea, Mexico, Nigeria and Indonesia, it was shown that oil wealth has not stopped deforestation, but it has helped to slow it down during periods of high oil prices.
When oil prices have fallen, in contrast, people have drifted back to the countryside and converted more forest to farmland.
What are the impacts?
- Risks of major oil spills in forests and off-shore during loading and transport
- Occasional improper decommissioning of drilling sites and pipelines
- Poaching and bushmeat trade, after new drilling sites are opened for exploitation
Gamba in focusIn the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas, Gabon, a massive area of 12,000 km² that consists of an assortment of different protected areas (including Loango and Mouakalaba-Doudou national parks), oil companies have been extracting petrol products for decades.
There, an important on-shore petrol reserve was found in 1985. This had a massive impact on the town of Gamba, which has grown from a village of 10 people in the 1960s to a town of 8,000 inhabitants.
More environmental impact after the oil company leaves?Ironically, in some cases the worst environmental problems do not actually occur while large oil companies are working in the region, but after they leave.
Let's look at Gamba. The major oil companies that are active in this high-biodiversity region, such as Shell, operate according to sound environmental standards.
But this may not last. When oil reserves will have become too marginal for these big companies, smaller ‘pioneer’ companies will take over operations. The problem is that these companies will not have the financial and technical capacity to keep up their predecessors' environmental and social management standards.
What we can expect? More risks of pollution and poor procedures for the decommissioning of oil sites are 2 potential results, but they are not the only ones.
How a range of social benefits could just dry upThe cessation of oil exploitation in Gamba could also bring to a halt:
- Boat transport that provide the extraction site and the people in the region with equipment, food and other resources,
- Operations of the gas field that provides electricity services,
- Private sector management of Gamba airport and guaranteed regular flights to the capital, providing a link to the world.
For the biodiversity of the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas, this would be very grim news.
How oil revenues helped to protect Gabon's forests
Gabon's oil boom attracted people from rural parts of the country to urban areas, especially young people of working age. As one village elder explains, “Nobody lives here anymore. The young are leaving, and the elephants and gorillas run freely through our gardens, destroying what little we grow to eat.”
The exodus to the cities and the reduced agriculture pressure has been a blessing for the forests. Over 80% of the country is still covered by forests and deforestation here - compared to many other Congo River Basin countries - is negligible.
Source: Wunder S., 2003. When the Dutch Disease met the French Connection: Oil, Macroeconomics and Forests in Gabon. Center for International Forestry Research.
1 CARPE. 2005. Forests of the Congo River Basin: a preliminary assessment. Balmar. Washington DC.
2 CARPE. 2005. Forests of the Congo River Basin: a preliminary assessment. Balmar. Washington DC.
3 Globaltimber.co.uk. Deforestation and Crude Oil Production. Accessed 14/11/05.