The Brazilian constitution recognizes the rights of indigenous people to live in their traditional territories according to their lifestyle. It also states that the government is responsible for the demarcation of indigenous land and is in charge of providing bilingual education and health care adapted to indigenous needs and beliefs.
In practice, a different picture
There is however a gap between what is stated in the law and what is happening on the ground.
Although the most important indigenous lands are legally demarcated today, the government has not provided the needed money for education and health care. For this reason, indigenous people such as the Yanomami have high rates of children mortality.
Some indigenous groups continue to face persecution in various forms. Poor migrant populations that are relocating from overpopulated areas to begin subsistence farming or in search of gold may infringe on indigenous territory, or compete for the same resources.
The expansion of the Trans-Amazonian highway and other development projects are creating a range of problems, which indigenous people face great difficulties to deal with.