It takes into account two factors:
1. The area available for:
2. The productivity of the land
- cropland for producing food, fibre and biofuels
- grazing land for animal products such as meat, milk, leather and wool
- coastal and inland fishing grounds
- forests, which both provide wood and can absorb CO2.
- measured by how much the crops or trees growing on it yield per hectare.
Both the Ecological Footprint
(which represents demand for resources) and biocapacity are expressed in units called global hectares (gha), with 1gha representing the productive capacity of 1ha of land at world average productivity.
Biocapacity is not spread evenly around the world