Habitat loss is extensive in the region, over 75% of the original Himalayan habitat has been destroyed or degraded. Fuelwood and fodder collection has damaged forests and grasslands. Extensive livestock grazing has displaced and outcompeted wild species, and rapid development is removing species habitat and fragmenting populations.
Poaching, and unsustainable hunting for the commercial wildlife trade, are endangering the flagship species of the Eastern Himalayas. The demand for tiger and rhino parts, for example - highly prized in East Asian medicine - places these species under extreme threat.
Wildlife killing also takes place as a result of conflict with humans. Retaliation against tigers and snow leopards for killing livestock, and against elephants and rhinos for eating crops, is common and continues to intensify as humans and wildlife compete for land and other resources.
Climate change further exacerbates the impacts from all of these threats, by altering the natural environmental flow of resources in the region; inflicting extra pressure on ecosystems, livelihoods and biodiversity.