Habitat loss and degradation
Uncontrolled development has led directly to the destruction of critically important nesting beaches. Lights from roads and buildings attract hatchlings and disorient them away from the sea. Vehicle traffic on beaches compacts the sand and makes it impossible for female turtles to dig nests.
Sea walls and jetties change long-shore drift patterns and can cause erosion or destruction of entire beach sections. Beach restoration projects aimed at protecting seaside buildings, through dredging and sand filling continue to destroy important nearshore feeding grounds and alter nesting beaches.
Important marine turtle feeding habitats such as coral reefs and seagrass beds are continuously being damaged or entirely destroyed as a result of sedimentation, nutrient run-off from the land, insensitive tourist development, destructive fishing techniques and climate change.
Hunting and poaching
Hunting and egg collection for consumption are major causes of the drastic decline in marine turtle populations around the world. Green turtles are caught for their meat, eggs and calipee (the green body fat which is the main ingredient in turtle soup).
Researchers estimate that each year poachers take 30,000 green turtles in Baja California and that more than 50,000 marine turtles are killed in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific.
Olive ridley turtles have been pursued for eggs and their skin used for leather production. In the 1960s, over one million olive ridley turtles were butchered each year on Mexico's Pacific coast. In many countries, juvenile marine turtles are caught, stuffed and sold as curios to tourists. Marine turtle eggs are considered an aphrodisiac in some countries and eaten raw or sold as snacks in bars and restaurants.
International trade in products such as tortoiseshell from hawksbill turtles, green turtle calipee and leather from olive ridley turtles has exacerbated the quantity of directed take of marine turtles.
Over the past decades, Japan has emerged as the principal country buying shell (known as Bekko) from tropical countries to produce costly handicrafts. Despite the CITES listing, trade between non-signatory countries and illegal trade persist.
Each year, tens of thousands of olive ridley, Kemp's ridley, loggerhead green and leatherback turtles are trapped in shrimping operations. Marine turtles are reptiles so when they cannot reach the surface to breathe, they drown.
Gill nets and long-line fisheries are also principal causes of marine turtle mortality. Worldwide, hundreds of thousands of marine turtles are caught annually in trawls, on long-line hooks and in fishing nets.
Changing climate and global warming have the potential to seriously impact marine turtle populations. Marine turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination, meaning that an increase in global temperatures could change the proportion of female and male turtle hatchlings and could result in marine turtle populations becoming unstable.
Marine turtles can mistake floating plastic materials for jellyfish and choke to death when they try to eat them. Discarded fishing gear entangles marine turtles and can drown or render a turtle unable to feed or swim. Rubbish on beaches can trap hatchlings and prevent them from reaching the ocean. Oil spills can poison marine turtles of all ages.
Many types of diseases have been observed in marine turtles. Recent reports of a rise in the occurrence of fibropapillomas
, a tumorous disease that can kill marine turtles, is believed to be caused by run-off from land or marine pollution. On some of the Hawaiian Islands, almost 70% of stranded green turtles are affected by fibropapillomas.
Natural predators and introduced species
Marine turtles can lay more than 150 eggs per clutch, and lay several times each season, to make up for the high mortality that prevents most marine turtles from reaching maturity. The subtle balance between marine turtles and their predators can be tipped against turtle survival when new predators are introduced or if natural predators suddenly increase in number as a result of human interference.