Breeding failure of a colony of nearly 20,000 Adélie penguins highlights need for urgent protections of Antarctic waters
- Thousands of Adélie penguin chicks starved to death at the start of 2017 due to unusually extensive sea ice
Surviving mostly on a diet of krill, a small shrimp like crustacean, Adélie penguins are generally faring well in East Antarctica, but declining in the Antarctic peninsula region where climate change is well established. However, this significant breeding failure at this particular colony in East Antarctica has been linked to unusually extensive sea ice late in the summer, meaning the adult penguins had to travel further to forage for food for their chicks. As a result the chicks starved.
The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), comprising 25 member states and the EU, are meeting on the 16th October 2017 in Hobart, where they will consider a proposal for a new Marine Protected Area (MPA) for the waters off East Antarctica. The proposal for an MPA, led by Australia and France with the EU, has been on the table at CCAMLR for eight years but has yet to be agreed. Nevertheless, expectations are running high as last year CCAMLR adopted the Ross Sea MPA, the largest protected area in the world. An MPA would help to secure a future for the amazing wildlife and marine biodiversity of East Antarctica, including Adélie and emperor penguins.
Four years ago, the same colony which numbered 20,196 pairs at the time, failed to produce a single chick. Again heavy sea ice, combined with unusually warm weather and rain, followed by a rapid drop in temperature, resulted in many chicks becoming saturated and freezing to death.
WWF has been supporting penguin research by French scientists working for the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) in the region since 2010.
Rod Downie, Head of Polar Programmes at WWF-UK, said:
"Adélie penguins are one of the hardiest and most amazing animals on our planet. This devastating event contrasts with the image that many people might have of penguins. It’s more like ‘Tarantino does Happy Feet’, with dead penguin chicks strewn across a beach in Adélie Land.
"The risk of opening up this area to exploratory krill fisheries, which would compete with the Adélie penguins for food as they recover from two catastrophic breeding failures in four years, is unthinkable. So CCAMLR needs to act now by adopting a new Marine Protected Area for the waters off East Antarctica, to protect the home of the penguins."
The MPA proposal originally comprised seven large marine areas off the coast of East Antarctica but subsequently reduced to four. However, it is anticipated that only three of those (MacRobertson, Drygalski, and the D’Urville Sea-Mertz region, where the Petrel Island Adélie colony is located) will be adopted this year. The D’Urville Sea Mertz region in particular needs to be set aside as off limits to krill fisheries in order to protect the foraging and breeding grounds of Adélie penguins.
WWF expects the other four areas, comprising Gunnerus, Enderby, Prydz Bay, and Wilkes to be brought back in front of CCAMLR in future years.
Yan Ropert-Coudert, senior penguin scientist at the CNRS who leads the Adélie penguin programme at Dumont D’Urville research station, adjacent to the colony, said:
"The region is impacted by environmental changes that are linked to the breakup of the Mertz glacier since 2010. An MPA will not remedy these changes but it could prevent further impacts that direct anthropogenic pressures, such as tourism and proposed fisheries, could bring".
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Photos available for use here.
Penguin cam footage available here.
Note to Editors:
1. CCAMLR is comprised of 25 member states and the EU. Climate change, fishing vessel safety, overfishing and micro-plastics will also be discussed at the meeting which runs for two weeks, finishing on October 27th.
2. The three areas in East Antarctic waters are the MacRobertson, Drygalski, and D’Urville Sea-Mertz regions, making up the East Antarctic Representative System of Marine Protected Areas
CCAMLR is urged to:
● Designate the shelf depressions in each of the three MPAs as no-take zones to safeguard shelf area habitats.
● Designate the entire D’Urville Sea-Mertz MPA as no-take to protect foraging and breeding grounds of emperor and Adélie penguins. Some Adélie colonies in the area have experienced significant chick die-offs in recent years.
● Create a no-take MPA in the D’Urville Sea-Mertz area, which in addition to providing protections for at-risk Adélie penguin colonies would best meet the critical conservation objectives to safeguard:
o Food webs and foraging grounds for other seabirds and marine mammals.
o The biodiversity associated with canyons and ice shelves.
o Vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), both known and unknown.
o Nursery areas for important Antarctic forage species, such as Antarctic silverfish.
● Adopt in subsequent years previously proposed MPAs in the Gunnerus, Enderby, Prydz Bay, and Wilkes areas to ensure full protection of East Antarctica.
● Increase no-take protections within the East Antarctic representative system of MPAs as new data and information about threats and risks to these ecosystems emerge, including the discovery of new VMEs.