Cars should plug-in to a new future: WWF
Plugged in: the End of the Oil Age considers the future of a transport sector now 95% dependent on liquid hydrocarbon fuels and examines the potential impacts and practicalities of electricity versus other oil substitutes that could fuel the future transport system.
It finds that vehicles running solely or partly on electricity supplied from the grid are significantly more efficient and may emit fewer greenhouse gases than many so-called “alternative fuels”, even when that electricity is mostly produced using fossil fuels.
Less polluting power generation and more use of renewable energies make it certain that the comparative efficiency and pollution advantages of plug-in transport solutions will improve into the future.
“We should all be relying more on walking and biking, on buses and trains, to get to where we need to go. But cars will inevitably remain a major part of the transport equation. The cars of the future must be much more efficient -- smaller, lighter, more aerodynamic -- and they should, increasingly, be powered by electricity,” says James Leape, Director General of WWF International.
As oil becomes more difficult to access, techniques to create liquid fuels from coal are now being vigorously pursued in the US, China, India, Australia and South Africa.
“Coal-to-liquid fuels are costly, energy intensive and extremely polluting, and have previously only been used on any significant scale in countries facing a state of emergency,” said report author Dr Gary Kendall.
Other alternatives to traditional oil extraction include exploitation of oil sands, which generates 3 times the emissions of petroleum processing and causes devastation to the local environment.
The report also finds that the electric vehicles can be 3 times more efficient than hydrogen-fuelled vehicles, and more importantly can already be achieved using existing technology and distribution infrastructure.
“Automotive transport is ripe for transformation,” said Dr Kendall. “We need to accelerate the commercialisation of vehicles with diversified primary energy sources, high efficiency and compatibility with a sustainable, renewable energy future. The electrification of automotive transport offers a promising way to achieve this objective.”
To do so, the report recommends dismantling market barriers to superior technologies and removing a host of hidden and overt subsidies to liquid fuel use. Vehicles should be subject to similar energy labelling and efficiency improvement requirements as other energy-consuming appliances. Liquid-based measures of fuel economy (e.g. litres per 100km or miles per gallon) and CO2 emissions targets should be replaced with technology-neutral indicators of energy consumed per kilometre.
Notes to editors
• Dr Gary Kendall is Senior Energy Business and Policy Analyst for the WWF Global Climate Change and Energy Programme based in Brussels. He joined WWF in 2006 after nine years in the petroleum industry in Europe and Asia. He holds a PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of Liverpool.
• Transport is the only sector so utterly reliant on oil and is the second largest source of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions after the power sector. There are currently about 800 million vehicles in the world and this number could double within 25 years according to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (Mobility 2030).
• Electric vehicles can be four times more efficient than their internal combustion counterparts. In a conventional mechanical vehicle, only 18-23 per cent of the energy contained in the fuel is converted into motion, whereas electric vehicles make use of up to 75 per cent of electricity taken from the grid.
• Recent studies have shown that significant numbers of plug-in vehicles may be introduced without any impact on electricity infrastructure, assuming those vehicles are charged off-peak (see Impacts Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities and Regional U.S. Power Grids - Part 1: Technical Analysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2006)
• TV footage (B-roll including Gary Kendall soundbites) can be downloaded from www.panda.org/broadcast .Footage on oil sands in Alberta, Canada, is available on http://www.wwf.org.uk/researcher/programmethemes/oilgasandmining/0000000293.asp
• High-resolution photographs and graphs to illustrate it can be found in the Press Room drop box at https://intranet.panda.org/documents/folder.cfm?uFolderID=61441
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• This press release, the report and related material is available on www.panda.org/ climate and www.panda.org/eu
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WWF, the global conservation organization, is one of the world's largest and most respected independent conservation organizations. WWF has a global network active in over 100 countries with almost 5 million supporters.
WWF's mission is to stop the degradation of the earth's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by conserving the world's biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable, and promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption..