Toxic chemicals a major threat to the Arctic - WWFArctic wildlife and some Arctic indigenous people, particularly Inuit, are contaminated by industrial pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and insecticides, according to a report released today by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), and endorsed by WWF, the conservation organization.
The AMAP's new report Arctic Pollution 2002 demonstrates that Inuit in Greenland and Canada have among the world’s highest exposures to certain toxic chemicals as a result of long-range transport. The study also reveals that polar bears, Arctic fox, seals, killer whales, harbor porpoises, and birds such as glaucous gulls and peregrine falcons, are among the Arctic species contaminated with the highest levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). POPs are known to damage the nervous system, development and reproduction, and are able to travel great distances. In order to combat the threat they pose, WWF is calling on Russia and the US to ratify the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, a new international treaty which will phase out and ban some of the most dangerous pollutants. Several other Arctic rim countries, including Canada, Norway, and Sweden, have already ratified this important convention.
"Most of these chemicals come from outside the Arctic, including the Southern hemisphere, and are carried to the Arctic by wind and water currents," said Samantha Smith, director of WWF’s International Arctic Programme. "Without a global ban, we can’t protect indigenous peoples and wildlife in the Arctic. The US and Russia need to stop ignoring the scientific evidence and ratify the Stockholm Convention."
According to the report, the arctic species with the highest levels of POPs are already showing adverse effects. For example, researchers have linked POPs levels to reduced immune system function, and increased rates of infection, in polar bears and fur seals. WWF believes that the use of toxic industrial chemicals results in slowly poisoning some of the world’s unique species.
The Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC), which represents Inuit in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Russia, is also concerned by the report's finding. "Inuit call on all Arctic states to work together in global meetings to protect the health of Arctic residents, and to renew and expand scientific programmes on contaminant threats to the health and way of life of Inuit and other Arctic indigenous peoples," said Sheila Watt-Cloutier, ICC chair.
One of the alarming issues highlighted in the report is the increase in levels of organic mercury found in some parts of the Arctic. The trend is primarily due to increased burning of coal for energy production in South-east Asia, showing once again the tight links between the Arctic – as a recipient of pollutants – and the rest of the world.