Alternative water points for elephants
Alternative water points fail if conservancies don't have enough diesel to pump water at both points. Solar pumps may be a solution to this problem. In addition, communities should agree not to settle at the water point or allow their livestock to drink there. (Guibeb Pers. Comm; Esterhuizen Pers. Comm). It could be difficult to get such an agreement in a semi-arid to arid area such as Kunene Region where mobility is important for successful livestock farming and drought is a normal occurrence. Again theft of the solar panels and the pump could be a potential problem.
The cost to build alternative elephant water points in conservancies assisted by the NGO IRDNC varied between N$ 20.000 to N$ 25.000, (≈ 2870 - 3580 US $) including piping from the source ranging between 1-5 km Esterhuizen (Pers. Comm.).