Not all solutions are applicable in all circumstances, or to all species, and it is important that they are not used in isolation, but as part of a strategically designed package that reflects local conditions, needs and problems. At a conservancy level, local HWC Management Plans, which identify management strategies and actions involving all relevant stakeholders, can provide this package.

However without appropriate institutional frameworks, the frequency and geographical spread of conflicts is set to increase. Attention needs to be given to the provision of supportive international and national policies, and efficient national and regional decision-making frameworks, particularly in land-use planning, that ensures current and potential HWC is taken into account.

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