Average annual temperature on the coast has already increased by 0,8ºC since 1945 and is likely to grow further by 1-1,5C by 2050. Total annual precipitation won’t change much but will change its seasonal distribution – we can expect slightly bigger share of humidity in winter and less in summer. Winters will be milder with less ice cover, summers hotter and drier. Extreme weather events (droughts, floods, torrential rains and tornados) will become more frequent.
There are high uncertainties in predicting how ecosystems will respond. Warmer climate is likely to be beneficial for wintering birds, reptiles and big mammals but may negatively impact amphibians. Warm-loving invasive species will have competitive advantage over native ones – in the last years we can observe spread of jakal further North.
As climate is changing, agricultural practices will need to be adapted in order to preserve stable yields. Longer growing season may allow for the cultivation of the second crop and new crops with higher heat demands.
However, less rainfall in summer may become limiting factor for some staples. Water consumption for irrigation and drinking water supply needs will have to be carefully managed as quality of surface and groundwaters is expected to deteriorate.
Negative impacts of climate change can be minimised if proactive and timely adaptation action is mainstreamed into all sectors of economy.