Addressing threats to nature in the Carpathians

Handbook for stewards of nature areas

The handbook Addressing Threats to Nature in the Carpathians and related materials provides an introduction and overview of some of the legal tools available for addressing conflicts between infrastructure and nature conservation and protected areas in the Carpathian Mountains.

The greatest advantage of the Carpathian region compared to many others is the rich natural treasures and resources of the area, which are unparalleled in Europe. The best long-term prospects for development of the region therefore must be based on preserving while using this natural capital rather than squandering it for short-term gain.

At least on paper and in principle, the EU and Carpathian countries already have relatively good frameworks and some powerful tools in place for ensuring smart development – for ensuring that infrastructure development takes into account different interests, including that of conservation, and thus contributes to something approaching long-term sustainable development in the Carpathians.

The legal and administrative tools described in the handbook should help to prevent such conflicts from happening in the first place and, where they do occur, to help address them in the interest of long-term sustainable development in the Carpathians.

The handbook is intended for all stewards of high nature value areas, including Protected Area managers, NGOs and local communities and interested stakeholders. While it is intended expressly for audiences in the Carpathian Mountains, many of the tools described are relevant in other areas as well.


The handbook provides an overview of selected tools available in international and EU legislation across different Carpathian countries, featuring simple fact sheets on each of the instruments.

A presentation (powerpoint) on legal and administrative instruments available for use and adaptation e.g. in trainings on the subject.

Country reports provide an overview of legislation and administrative instruments that are specific to each of the Carpathian countries, i.e. those that transpose the international and EU legislation as well as other national instruments that may be of use. Country reports are initially available for the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary; further reports for Romania, Ukraine and Serbia will be added later, resources permitting.

References and links to further information are included throughout the document.

This publication has been produced by the Carpathian Project under the INTERREG III B CADSES Neighbourhood Programme and co-financed by the European Union as well as the MAVA Fondation pour la Protection de la Nature as part of the WWF Protected Areas for a Living Planet Carpathian Ecoregion Project.

  •  / ©: Popp & Hackner / WWF
  •  / ©: Andreas Beckmann, 2007
    Addressing threats to nature in the Carpathians -- click here for article and presentations from workshop, October 2007.

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