/ ©: WWF Baltic Ecoregion Programme

Baltic Sea

A little salt

The Baltic Sea is one of the planet’s largest bodies of brackish water. A delicate mixture of salt water from the North East Atlantic and fresh water from surrounding rivers and streams blends in a highly sensitive and interdependent marine ecosystem, giving rise to unique flora and fauna. But these special qualities also make it vulnerable.


Why the Baltic Sea matters

The Baltic Sea is surrounded by nine countries that are home to more than 85 million people and diverse political, social and economic realities. Many of these people rely on a healthy Baltic Sea for their food and incomes, and many more treasure it as an important space for nature and leisure activities. Our own futures and the future of the Baltic Sea are inextricably linked.


Threats to the Baltic Sea

Over the past 100 years, the Baltic Sea has degraded quite dramatically. Human pressures such as over-fishing, pollution and now increasingly the effects of climate change are altering the ecological balance and depleting renewable resources beyond safe biological limits. These pressures jeopardize the future use of the Baltic’s vast array of ‘ecosystem goods and services’, provided by nature for free.


What WWF is doing

WWF has been working for several decades to identify solutions for restoring the Baltic to a healthy state. The WWF Baltic Ecoregion Programme is comprised of WWF and longstanding environmental organization partners in each of the nine coastal Baltic Sea countries - Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Sweden. Representing the region’s largest membership network, the programme’s approach has been to work with public and private sector partners toward ensuring a healthy, productive Baltic Sea through sustainable, ecosystem-based management.

The ten organizations who comprise the programme today are bound by their belief that a dynamic regional partnership and collective commitment to implementing innovative solutions will be catalytic to ensuring that the Baltic Sea is once again able to support abundant fish stocks, healthy marine life and thriving coastal communities. Our vision is: “A healthy, diverse and resilient Baltic Sea, sustainably managed for the benefit of people and nature of the region.”

 / ©: WWF Sweden
The health of the Baltic Sea has long been viewed solely as an environmental concern, but this report shows that it must be viewed as an economic and social concern as well. Failing to restore the Baltic Sea will not only further impair the Baltic Sea environment but the ability to add these jobs and economic growth.
© WWF Sweden

Turning adversity into opportunity: A business plan for the Baltic Sea

'Turning Adversity to Opportunity for the Baltic Sea' is a report, built upon the ‘Baltic Scenarios’  initiative, produced for WWF by the Boston Consulting Group demonstrating the economic and social benefits of choosing a better future scenario for the Baltic today, tomorrow and in 20 years.
Baltic Sea. Dragsfard, Finland.
© Mauri Rautkari / WWF

The Baltic Sea is one of the busiest maritime areas in the world.

In its report ‘Future Trends in the Baltic Sea’ WWF highlighted the growth projections for a number of sectors in the Baltic Sea region, almost all of which are set to grow substantially over the next 20 years – some by as much as several hundred percent. This growth will increase demand for the limited space and resources of the sea, and could consequently lead to increased conflicts within maritime sectors, between sectors, and between human uses and nature.
 / ©: WWF Sweden
Future Trends in the Baltic region
© WWF Sweden

Future Trends

  • Click here to see the Interactive map of future trends in the Baltic Sea

Protecting Baltic Sea seals

 / ©: Charles Hood / WWF-UK
The UK hotspots were chosen for their diverse populations of wildlife, which include grey seals.
© Charles Hood / WWF-UK
Seals were once found in large numbers in the Baltic Sea. But decades of pollution and hunting have seen their numbers rapidly drop.

In the early 20th century, the ringed seal population of the Baltic Sea was estimated at 180,000. Today, there are just 7,000-10,000. Grey and harbour seal numbers are also in a precarious state. Although some populations have slightly increased, overall they continue to be threatened.

In Finland, WWF is working to protect Baltic seals by establishing marine protected areas along the coast. The species are also protected through legislation by various countries within their range.

The water is not safe for people or animals when the algal bloom arrives in the Baltic Sea. / ©: Anders Modig
The water is not safe for people or animals when the algal bloom arrives in the Baltic Sea.
© Anders Modig
The water is not safe for people or animals when the algal bloom arrives in the Baltic Sea.

Where is the Baltic Sea?

The Baltic Sea is highlighted below in blue.

View Regional Priorities in a larger map

Facts & Figures

    • 9 countries surround the Baltic Sea: Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Russia and Lithuania.
    • The Baltic Sea occupies a basin formed by glacial erosion during the last few Ice Ages.
    • The Baltic Sea's salinity is much lower than that of ocean water
    • The sea is about 1,60km (1,000 miles) long; an average of 193km (120 miles) wide; and an average of 55m (180 feet) deep.
    • The surface area is about 377,000km2 (145,522 sq mi) and the volume is about 20,000km3 (5040 cubic mi).
    • The periphery amounts to about 8,000km (4,968 miles) of coastline.
    • At the time of the Roman Empire, the Baltic Sea was known as the Mare Suebicum or Mare Sarmaticum; since the Viking age, the Scandinavians have called it the Eastern Lake.

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