China`s low footprint seafood

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Fish farmer Ma Gencai, Shezhong Village, Linghu County, Zhejiang Province, China. Mr Gencai uses traditional methods of integrated fish farming, and adapts them to the modern context.
© WWF-Canon / Elma Okic

A low marine footprint means farming fish with little use of wild caught fish or marine invertebrates in the food given to them.

Dr Mark Powell, Seafood Leader, WWF International

China produces more fish through aquaculture than any other country. Most of China’s farmed fish are carp and other species low in the food chain that thrive on a mostly vegetarian diet.
The success in producing this kind of seafood allows China to provide people with a protein-rich, low-cost seafood diet that has a low marine footprint.  



Modernization is creating some challenges that China’s aquaculture scientists are working hard to solve. For example, competition for labor is driving up costs and undermining traditional low footprint production systems. Ongoing research is modernizing fish farming methods that date back more than a thousand years and utilize ingenious and sustainable methods for recycling nutrients. 

One fascinating method for farming carp is to grow several species together with mulberry plants and silkworms. 

In this farming system, rich pond mud fertilizes mulberry plants, mulberry leaves are fed to silkworms, and silkworm pupae and waste feeds fish directly and fertilizes a rich pond ecosystem that includes pond plants and animals that carp can eat. Use of several species of carp with different food preferences increases fish production from the pond with minimal need to artificially feed the fish. 

Scientists in China are now actively developing new fish farming methods that retain some of the sustainability values of traditional systems while also increasing the productivity per hectare of fish ponds. 

One important goal is to maintain or increase fish production without relying on feeding fishmeal and fish oil, containing wild caught fish many of which are in limited supply, expensive and can come from unsustainable fisheries. 

China`s approach to using modernized yet traditional approaches for low marine footprint fish farming are also benefitting other countries. Chinese scientists are training fish farmers from all over the world with the aim of reducing stress on marine ecosystems.

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