Social-ecological systems in focus
Resilience is understood to depend on factors like redundancy, diversity, available knowledge, and the ability to learn and to adapt. Preventing failed cities is a key concern – especially with climate change. The vulnerability of cities is crucially important, because cities are often national lifelines and centres of economic, cultural, research and innovation activities. Rapid, uncontrolled urbanisation does make cities more vulnerable. The UN's ongoing effort "Making Cities Resilient” uses a multidimensional approach to increase disaster preparedness.