100+ Learning cases | WWF

100+ Learning cases

A global inventory from sustainable urban development

The aim of the Urban solutions project is to support learning about, and action toward sustainable cities. Our vision is a future where we all live well within the capacity of one living planet – in other words, a One Planet Future. WWF's work for sustainable cities is part of our larger efforts to meet global meta-goals of sustainable development.

WWF has studied and catalogued 100+ real examples of how cities are approaching the need to minimize their ecological footprints and protect ecosystem services and biodiversity. We can think of no better motivator than the inspiring examples provided by these learning cases, which highlight how cities are working, in real life and in real time, to reduce their footprints and protect biodiversity and ecosystem services.
	© Will Ivy / WWF
© Will Ivy / WWF

WWF and cities

As it has become clearer that working with cities is critical in achieving the One Planet Future vision, WWF has increased its focus on urban issues. Conservation goals are closely linked to production and consumption patterns, which are largely driven by the demands of urban societies.

WWF is convinced that through improved design of products and services and increased public participation in creating sustainable solutions, our goals and vision can be achieved, while sustaining and even increasing our quality of life. The challenge is now to switch rapidly to sustainable pathways by using and continually innovating on the learning from these real cases.

It is their political mandate that makes local governments ideal drivers of change

Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century

	© WWF

Take part actively

Your questions and comments are vital to the evolution of this website. Please share them with us. It is also essential to apply what is learned to real places and real situations – to your own life. Please be active in the work for sustainable cities – globally and locally. Every one of us has a vital role in this urgent work for a sustainable future.

Explore via themes

How can cities adapt water, air, mobility, or building systems to reduce ecological footprints and protect biodiversity? The answers begin with these 100+ learning cases, organised around 13 vital themes: air, water, food, ecosystem services and biodiversity, housing and buildings, mobility and accessibility, consumption, waste and sinks, energy, climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, governance and citizenship, and resilience.

The focus of the learning cases is on human needs – with high priority given to biodiversity and ecosystem services, key elements of WWF's mission.

Theme icons

	© WWF
Navigate the site via these theme icons

Selection and focus

The selection of learning cases is diverse and international, focused on positive examples of cities where smart ideas have been implemented and concrete results have been reported.

We have focused on learning cases rather than ”best practices” for several reasons. It is never possible to claim with certainty that a case is the current best practice, as new information can arise that may overturn such claims. Further, learning points are process-oriented and dynamic, and can support the expansion of ideas in different contexts. Finally, it is important to avoid the impression that there are definitive “best practices” out there – so sustainable that more innovation and learning are not needed. Instead, we work with the conviction that our learning cases can and should continue to foster rapid and creative action in cities worldwide.

	© WWF

Thank you

WWF wishes to thank the many people who have contributed information: Jeffrey Kenworthy and Peter Newman (Curtin University), Göran Finnveden (Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden), Lars J. Nilsson, Per Svenningsson and Elisabeth Dahlholm Hornyanszky (Lund Institute of Technology), Stefan Anderberg (Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies), Norman Duke (James Cook University), Angela Espenberger (International Passive House Association, iPHA), Andrea Broaddus (University of California, Berkeley), Thierry Goger and Carmencita Malimban (European Cooperation in Science and Technology, COST), Jessica Morris (Institute for Transportation & Development Policy), Gael Leopold (WWF International), Karin Wessman (Senior Consultant), Lisen Schultz (Stockholm Resilience Centre), Peter Rahtje (ProjectZero, Sønderborg), Jennie Organ (BioRegional), and the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management.

With special thanks to Aaron Thomas, Martin Jacobson, Sven Björnekull, April Streeter, Daniel Moran, Jennifer Hinton, Rhoda Kachali, Chad Boda, and Tobias Abrahamsson for their work on the project.


  • Sabina Andren

    Officer Sustainable Cities


    +46 70 34 05 137

About the project

WWF Sweden has taken the initiative to this project called Urban solutions for a living planet. The initial research and writing work for the 100+ learning cases was focused during the period October 2010 to October 2011. New learning cases have been added during 2012-2013.

Read the Urban solutions summary


The contents of this inventory may contain opinions and statements from various sources related to sustainable urban development around the globe. Neither WWF nor its affiliates, nor any of their respective agents, employees, information providers or content providers, shall be liable for any inaccuracy, error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, alteration of or use of any content herein, or for its timeliness or completeness.

The Urban solutions project has been financed by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sida. Sida does not necessarily share the views expressed in this material. Responsibility for its contents rests entirely with the author.
	© WWF
	© © NASA & Michael Buckley / WWF-Canada
    Read the Urban solutions summary

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