Indonesian Javan rhinoceros
Population stable, but still too small
Indonesian Javan rhinoceros, lesser one-horned rhino; Rhinocéros de la Sonde (Fr); Rinoceronte de Java (Sp)
Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus
Java, Western Indonesia
28-56 in Ujung Kulon National Park
Population & distributionPrevious population & distribution
Javan rhinos were once found on all major volcanoes in west Java, some of which are 3,000m above sea level. During the 1960s an estimated 20-30 individuals remained in Ujung Kulon National Park.
The population doubled from 1967 to 1978, after rigorous protection was put in place, in part supported by WWF-Indonesia. Since the end of 1970s, population numbers appear to be stable.
Current population & distribution
Only one population survives, in Ujung Kulon on the island of Java, Indonesia. The species has been protected here since 1931 in Indonesia and Ujung Kulon National Park was set aside for the conservation of the species.
The current population size is estimated at 28-56 individuals.
Ujung Kulon has an estimated carrying capacity of 80 rhinos, based on home size range and habitat condition. However, rhino numbers have not increased significantly for some years, indicating that carrying capacity might have already been reached.
Other possible reasons for the stable numbers are: (1) habitat changes, which have led to a decrease in available food; (2) competition with banteng (a cattle species) for food; (3) skewed sex ratio, leading to difficulties in mating; and (4) inbreeding depression.
Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java Mountain Forests
Mating takes place each year but is only successful every 4-5 years. The mating season occurs roughly from July to November, and the gestation period is about 16 months.
The single offspring is active soon after birth, being suckled by the mother for at least one and perhaps two years.
In Ujung Kulon, females become sexually mature between the age of 6 and 8, and research suggests that they mark their territory with urine in order to breed. The young stays with its mother for 1-2 years.
- Don't buy rhino horn products. Illegal trade in rhino horn is a continuing problem, posing one of the greatest threats to rhinos today.
- Use and support sustainable wood, paper and palm oil. By purchasing certified sustainable palm oil and FSC-certified forest products, retailers, traders, and manufacturers help protect Sumatran and Javan rhino habitat by limiting illegal logging and forest conversion to oil palm plantations. Consumers can also help by demanding certified products.
- Donate to WWF to support the Asian Rhino and Elephant Action Strategy.
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