Population & distribution
The greater one-horned rhino once ranged from northern Pakistan, across much of northern India, Nepal, northern Bangladesh, and Myanmar. It occurred mainly in alluvial grasslands, where the grass grew up to 8m tall. It was also found in adjacent swamps and forests.
The species came very close to extinction in the 20th century. And by 1975, only 600 individuals survived in the wild in India and Nepal.
Decades of conservation efforts have seen the population grow to around 3,000 in the Terai Arc Landscape of India and Nepal and the grasslands of Assam and north Bengal, northeast India. It is now found in cultivated areas and pastures, as well as modified woodlands.
With at least half of the total population, India's Kaziranga National Park remains the key reserve for this species. Across the border, the number of rhinos in Nepal has risen from 375 in 2005 to 645 a decade later. The majority of them are in the Royal Chitwan National Park.
Strict protection has seen the rhino population increase at a rate of approximately 5% per year. And thanks to a comprehensive approach, Nepal has achieved three years of zero poaching of rhino since 2011.