Extensive hybridization in hawksbill turtles nesting in Brazil
Seven distinct haplotypes, defined by 125 polymorphic sites, were found. Most of the individuals (n=67) display four typical hawksbill haplotypes, 50 individuals display two haplotypes characteristic of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and two individuals had a haplotype affiliated with the olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea). These results demonstrate hybridization between the hawksbills and two species that nest along the Bahia coast. Of special interest is the high occurrence of loggerhead x hawksbill hybrids (42%), which display loggerhead mtDNA haplotypes but are characterized morphologically as hawksbills.
The true hawksbill haplotypes present only three variable sites and low genetic diversity values (h=0.358±0.069; p=0.0005±0.0001). The occurrence of several nesting individuals with identical mtDNA from another species may also suggest a long history of introgression between species producing likely F2 or further generation hybrids. Marine turtle hybrids have been previously reported, but the high frequency observed in Bahia is unprecedented.
Such introgression may influence evolutionary pathways for all three species, or may introduce novel morphotypes that develop apart from the parental species. The presence of a unique hybrid swarm has profound conservation implications and will significantly influence the development and implementation of appropriate management strategies for these species.