Half of plant and animal species at risk from climate change | WWF

Half of plant and animal species at risk from climate change

Posted on 14 March 2018    
Increasing sea and sand temperatures are expected to disrupt and severely threaten the survival of Mediterranean species like marine turtles, cetaceans, bluefin tuna, whales and sharks.
© Tod Posser
14 March 2018 - Brussels, Belgium

Up to half of plant and animal species in the world’s most naturally rich areas, such as the Amazon, the Arctic and the Galapagos - and in Europe, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea Basin - could face local extinction by the turn of the century due to climate change if carbon emissions continue to rise unchecked. Even if the Paris Climate Agreement 2°C target is met, these places could lose 25 per cent of their species. That is according to a landmark new study by the University of East Anglia (UK), the James Cook University (Australia), and WWF.

Published today in the journal Climatic Change and just ahead of Earth Hour, the world’s largest grassroots movement for the environment, researchers examined the impact of climate change on nearly 80,000 plant and animal species in 35 of the world’s most diverse and naturally wildlife-rich areas.

For example, the report found that 30% of Mediterranean species like marine turtles and tuna are at risk of extinction even if we keep global warming to 2°C; this rises to 50% with no action.

Imke Lübbeke, head of climate and energy at WWF European Policy Office, said:
“Climate change is pushing our planet to a cliff-edge. Not only do rising temperatures impact people and their wellbeing directly, they threaten the ecosystems and biodiversity which are essential to human life. The EU must act to keep global temperature rise well under 2°C and to work for 1.5°C, as per the Paris Agreement, by ending fossil fuels rapidly, starting with coal by 2030. It must show it means business by publishing this year a 2050 Roadmap to take us to a net zero carbon economy”.

Andreas Baumueller, head of natural resources at WWF European Policy Office, commented:
“The twin crises of climate change and biodiversity loss are interlinked. For centuries, Europe's nature has been damaged, and climate change is adding to the pressure. Healthy ecosystems would actually help absorb and store carbon, and make our societies more resilient to the effects of climate change. This is why WWF is calling for 50% spending on climate and nature in the next EU budget -  it is an investment in our future, and essential to meeting the EU’s international biodiversity and climate commitments!“

Samantha Burgess, head of Marine Policy, WWF European Policy Office, said:
“Oceans are amongst the first ecosystems impacted by climate change. Not only are they impacted by warmer seas, more severe storms and melting sea ice but ocean acidification is also posing a threat to life phases of key marine species and habitats such as corals.”

The clear danger of climate change for people, the planet and its biodiversity is why on 24 March millions of people across the world will come together for Earth Hour. They will show their commitment to protecting biodiversity and being a part of the conversations and solutions needed to build a healthy, sustainable future – and planet – for all. The global mobilisation sparked by Earth Hour also sends a clear message to business and government that there is a global will to change this trajectory.

ENDS

For further information:
Sarah Azau
Senior Communications Officer
WWF European Policy Office
sazau@wwf.eu
+32 473 573 137

For questions about the Climatic Change paper, contact Rachel Warren, +44(0)1603 593912 r.warren@uea.ac.uk 

For questions about the full WWF report, contact Jeff Price, +44(0)1603 592561 jeff.price@uea.ac.uk

Impact of climate change scenarios on the Mediterranean region (percentage of species projected to be at risk of local extinction by the 2080s)
The Mediterranean is among the areas most exposed to climate change. High temperatures in the future will rapidly exceed those experienced in the recent years, leading to dangerous heat stresses on natural and human systems. If the temperature rise is constrained to 2°C, almost 30% of most species are at risk, and more than a third of all plants, while at business as usual levels around half of the region biodiversity will be lost. Increasing sea and sand temperatures are expected to disrupt and severely threaten the survival of the most marine species like marine turtles, cetaceans, bluefin tuna, whales and sharks. This will happen in a marine ecosystem already put under pressure from rampant overfishing, unsustainable tourism and energy and transport developments. We urgently need to shift to sustainable energy and economic models in order to protect our ocean and our livelihood.

See WWF’s own special focus on the Mediterranean

Overall findings of the report
Overall, the report finds that the Miombo Woodlands, home to African wild dogs, south-west Australia and the Amazon-Guianas are projected to be some of the most affected areas. If there was a 4.5°C global mean temperature rise, the climates in these areas are projected to become unsuitable for many of the plants and animals that currently live there meaning:
  • Up to 90 per cent of amphibians, 86 per cent of birds and 80 percent of mammals could potentially become locally extinct in the Miombo Woodlands, Southern Africa
  • The Amazon could lose 69 per cent of its plant species
  • In south-west Australia 89 per cent of amphibians could become locally extinct
  • 60 percent of all species are at risk of localized extinction in Madagascar
  • The Fynbos in the Western Cape Region of South Africa, which is experiencing a drought that has led to water shortages in Cape Town, could face localised extinctions of a third of its species, many of which are unique to that region.
As well as this, increased average temperatures and more erratic rainfall could become be the “new normal” according to the report - with significantly less rainfall in the Mediterranean, Madagascar and the Cerrado-Pantanal in Argentina. Potential effects include;
  • Pressure on the water supplies of African elephants – who need to drink 150-300 litres of water a day
  • 96 per cent of the breeding grounds of Sundarbans tigers could become submerged by sea-level rise
  • Comparatively fewer male marine turtles due to temperature-induced sex assignment of eggs.
If species can move freely to new locations then the risk of local extinction decreases from around 25 per cent to 20 per cent with a 2°C global mean temperature rise.  If species cannot they may not be able to survive. Most plants, amphibians and reptiles, such as orchids, frogs and lizards cannot move quickly enough keep up with these climatic changes.

Case studies
What individual species will experience:
  • Orang-Utans have a solitary life-style which allows them to move to cope with reduced food availability due to changing climates. However, females are strictly bound to their territories, which will prevent them from moving, and can put them at risk as there is a general reduction in available forest habitat due to deforestation, climate change and other human pressures
  • Snow leopards already live under extreme conditions with very little margin for changes which makes them particularly sensitive to changes in climate. Their habitat will shrink by 20 per cent due to climate change and will put them into greater direct competition over food and territory with the common leopard, which will likely lead to a further decline in numbers.
  • Tigers live in highly fragmented landscapes and will be greatly impacted by further climate-induced habitat loss. For example, projected sea level rise will submerge 96 per cent of breeding habitat for the Sundarbans tigers, and Amur tigers are unlikely to persist to the next century if the size and quality of their habitat is reduced.
  • Polar bears are among the most sensitive to climate change because they depend on sea ice to live and eat. Younger polar bears that are not as practiced hunters are particularly affected by food shortages due to shrinking sea ice. Polar bears in some areas are already in decline - for example, the population in Hudson Bay has been already reduced by 22 per cent - and are predicted to sharply decline by the end of the 21st century due to climate change.
  • Marine Turtles are highly sensitive to climate warming. While adults have been known to move to avoid too warm waters, a changing climate will impact greatly on their offspring. Tortoises and turtles are among the species with temperature-dependent sex determination. Warmer temperatures will produce more females resulting in a dangerous sex bias. Also increased flooding will increase egg mortality and warmer sand will also produce smaller and weaker hatchlings.
Notes to the editor
The research has been peer-reviewed and published 14 March 2018 in the academic journal Climatic Change. The reference is The implications of the United Nations Paris Agreement on Climate Change for Globally Significant Biodiversity Areas by Warren, R.1, Price, J., VanDerWal, J., Cornelius, S., Sohl, H.
  1. WWF has produced a summary report of the research titled ‘Wildlife in a Warming World’
  2. The research published in Climatic Change was summarised from a 5-part report commissioned by WWF and led by Dr. Jeff Price.  This report includes a literature review on the effects of climate change on individual species led by Dr. Amy McDougall (formerly UEA).
  3. The models used in this research come from the Wallace Initiative (http://wallaceinitiative.org), a near decade long partnership between the Tyndall Centre at UEA (UK), eResearch at James Cook University (Australia), the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and World Wildlife Fund.  
  4. Earth Hour, organised by WWF, is the world’s largest grassroots movement for the environment inspiring millions across the world to take action and make a promise to protect our brilliant planet, our home. Right now we’re facing some of the biggest environmental threats ever seen, including staggering biodiversity loss. - We’re seeing our oceans suffocated by plastic and over-consumption decimate our forests, the lungs of the earth. Earth Hour shows what we can achieve when we all come together. Last year in the UK over 9 million people took part, along with over 6,000 schools, 1,700 youth groups, 300 landmarks and thousands of businesses and organisations. Iconic landmarks including Big Ben and Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Tower Bridge, Blackpool Tower, The Kelpies, Brighton Pier, Cardiff Castle and many more joined the global switch off. Globally, from Samoa to Tahiti, a record 187 countries and territories took part in the world’s biggest Earth Hour yet. The support for Earth Hour and WWF’s work more broadly has influenced climate policy, facilitated climate-friendly laws, such as a ban on plastic in the Galapagos Islands and supported the world’s first Earth Hour forest in Uganda.
  5. WWF is one of the world’s largest and most respected independent conservation organizations, with over 5 million supporters and a global network active in over 100 countries. WWF's mission is to stop the degradation of the Earth's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by conserving the world's biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable, and promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption. Visit panda.org for latest news and media resources and follow us on Twitter @wwf
  6. The University of East Anglia (UEA) is a UK Top 15 university. Known for its world-leading research and outstanding student experience, it was awarded Gold in the Teaching Excellence Framework. UEA is a leading member of Norwich Research Park, one of Europe’s biggest concentrations of researchers in the fields of environment, health and plant science. www.uea.ac.uk
  7. The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research is an active and expanding partnership between the Universities of East Anglia (headquarters), Cambridge, Cardiff, Manchester, Newcastle, Oxford, Southampton, Sussex, and recently Fudan University in Shanghai. It conducts research on the interdisciplinary aspects of climate change and is committed to promote informed and effective dialogue across society about the options to manage our future climate. www.tyndall.ac.uk
Increasing sea and sand temperatures are expected to disrupt and severely threaten the survival of Mediterranean species like marine turtles, cetaceans, bluefin tuna, whales and sharks.
© Tod Posser Enlarge

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