The Nile - the world's longest river - runs through Egypt, creating a fertile green valley down the middle of the country, from Lake Nasser in the south to the Mediterranean Sea in the north. Except for the Nile Valley, the rest of the land is desert, including parts of the Sahara. Temperatures in this northeastern corner of Africa regularly exceed 37°C, and rain is very scarce.
In addition, Egypt is plagued by periodic droughts, flash floods and sandstorms. Despite the inhospitable conditions, wildlife exists throughout the country, including camels, gazelles, ibex, hyena and jackal. The Nile has a number of fish species, and crocodiles can be found along the shores of Lake Nasser. The Red Sea hosts a large amount of coral reefs and marine fauna.
Other environmental problems include desertification, water pollution from agricultural run-off and industry, and oil pollution that threatens coral reefs and marine habitats, particularly in the Red Sea.