The tamaraw was first recorded by Western science in 1888. It has only ever been sighted on the island of Mindoro. The island’s problems with malaria deterred human settlers, allowing the tamaraw freedom to roam the entire island. However, as the human population increased, the tamaraw’s range has diminished to just 2-3 sites and it has also had to adapt to a nocturnal habits to avoid human encounters. The population has declined dramatically, mainly because of hunting and other negative impacts of human settlement. Listed as critically endangered by IUCN, the current population is estimated to be between 30 and 200 individuals.