Selected species include the almost certainly extinct imperial woodpecker
), dwarf jay
), cycad (Dioon tomasellii
), volcano rabbit
), and 2 species of wild maize (Zea perennisand
and Z. diploperennis
The temperate forests of the Sierra Madre
del Sur are an unparalleled centre of endemism and biodiversity in Mexico. Many of the 350 species of orchids in this region can be found nowhere else in the world. This is one of the richest areas in butterfly species in the Mexican Pacific, with more than 160 species including the Pacific dotted-blue and Pacific orange tip butterflies.
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt
pine-oak forests represent a centre of diversity for at least 370 endemic plant and animal species. The highest diversity of reptiles and amphibians in the country is found here, and the intermontane lakes provide habitat to many endemic frogs and axolotls (primitive salamanders with gills). Monarch butterflies
, which undertake the largest migratory route of all insects (4,000 km or 2,500 miles), spend winters hibernating in these cool and moist volcanic forests.
pine-oak forests house the highest diversity of amphibians and reptiles in Mexico and support several birds endemic to the region, such as the grey-barred wren
, the bearded wood-partridge, and the dwarf jay
. At least 45 oak (Quercus
) species grow here, as well as 2 highly endangered tree species, a firand and a cypress.