Unique species include Hawaiian land snails, Hawaiian lobelias, Eupithecia moths
(predatory caterpillars), Hawaiian silversword alliance
), Hawaiian honeycreepers
) - believed to have evolved from a single ancestor, in the same way that Darwin's finches evolved in the Galapagos Islands, these birds have remarkably shaped bills, adapted to different feeding habits.
These forests are also noted for the diverse assemblage of shrubs and trees that were found within the Koa
and ‘Ohi’a forests. Bogs occur on montane plateaus or depressions and consist of a variety of sedges, grasses, ferns, mosses, small trees and shrubs that form irregular hummocks. The once abundant land snails (with 99% endemism) are now over 50% extinct with many of the remainder endangered.