Greater Sundas Mangroves | WWF

Greater Sundas Mangroves

About the Area

The Sunda Islands extend from the Malay Peninsula toward New Guinea. Some of the islands are large and known as the "Greater Sundas", including Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Sulawesi, while Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, and Flores make up the "Lesser Sundas".
One of the most diverse and extensive of its kind in the world, Greater Sundas Mangroves support numerous habitats and species.

Recent surveys have revealed the tremendous importance of this region for some of the world's rarest waterbirds, and like all mangroves they are important nursing grounds for several species of fish and shrimp.

Little affected by large-scale forest exploitation until 1975, these mangroves are now the most threatened forests in the archipelago. Sumatra has extensive mangroves along the eastern coast, but the island continues to lose its natural vegetation faster than any other region in Indonesia. Kalimantan's mangroves are somewhat more intact, but are also threatened by agriculture, development, and human settlement.

Local Species
Nipa palm (Nypa fruticans), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris), Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), False gharial (Tomistoma schlegeli), Spot-billed pelican (Pelecanus philippensis), Stork-billed kingfisher (Pelargopsis capensis), and several other species of reptiles, amphibians and fishes call this ecoregion home.

Agriculture, shrimp ponds, brackish water fishponds (tambak), salt ponds, human settlement, and illegal logging all pose threats to the ecoregion. Poaching and illegal trade threaten the existence of many local species especially saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).


37,000 sq. km (15,000 sq. miles)

Habitat type:

Geographic Location:
Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei

Conservation Status:

Did You Know!

The Western Pacific region supports an estimated 40 of the 68 species of mangrove trees that exist, compared to only 10 in the Americas.

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