Notable tree species include the Spanish juniper
), Horse chestnut
), Balkan pine
), Mediterranean cyprus (Cupressus sempervirens var. sempervirens
), and the Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica
). Among the best-known mammals of this ecoregion are 2 species of chamois
and R. rupricapra
) - horned, goat-like creatures. The Marocano fir - with its thick, twisted, and forked trunk - is found only in the Rif Mountains of Morocco.
Alpine chamois climb nimbly over steep and rocky areas, while southern chamois favor grassy alpine meadows and low, forested slopes. Other mammals include 2 species of ibex (Capra pyrenaica
and C. ibex
), brown bear
), European river otter (Lutra lutra
), and the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus
This region is also home to many birds of prey, including the black vulture
), griffon vulture
), Egyptian vulture
), imperial eagle
), and a bold and ferocious falcon called the saker
An unusually high number of amphibians for this latitude are found in the Crimea, as well as many endemic mollusks and insects. It is also rich in endemic plants - between 240 to 300 species can be found.
About 4,500 species of vascular plants, 800 species of mosses, 300 liverwort species, 2,500 species of lichens, and more than 5,000 species of fungi are found in the Alps mixed forests as well as about 21 species of amphibians, 15 species of reptiles, hundreds of bird species, and 80 species of mammals.