List of Ecoregions

TERRESTRIAL ECOREGIONS

Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Afrotropical
(1) Guinean Moist Forests - Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo
(2) Congolian Coastal Forests- Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, São Tomé & Príncipe, Republic of Congo
(3) Cameroon Highlands Forests- Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria
(4) Northeastern Congo Basin Moist Forests - Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo
(5) Central Congo Basin Moist Forests - Democratic Republic of Congo
(6) Western Congo Basin Moist Forests - Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Republic of Congo
(7) Albertine Rift Montane Forests - Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda
(8) East African Coastal Forests- Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania
(9) Eastern Arc Montane Forests - Kenya, Tanzania
(10) Madagascar Forests and Shrublands - Madagascar
(11) Seychelles and Mascarenes Moist Forests - Mauritius, Reunion (France), Seychelles

Australasia
(12) Sulawesi Moist Forests - Indonesia
(13) Moluccas Moist Forests - Indonesia
(14) Southern New Guinea Lowland Forests - Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
(15) New Guinea Montane Forests - Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
(16) Solomons-Vanuatu-Bismarck Moist Forests - Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
(17) Queensland Tropical Forests - Australia
(18) New Caledonia Moist Forests - New Caledonia (France)
(19) Lord Howe-Norfolk Islands Forests - Australia

Indo-Malayan
(20) Southwestern Ghats Moist Forests - India
(21) Sri Lankan Moist Forests - Sri Lanka
(22) Northern Indochina Subtropical Moist Forests - China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
(23) Southeast China-Hainan Moist Forests - China, Vietnam
(24) Taiwan, China: Montane Forests- China
(25) Annamite Range Moist Forests - Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
(26) Sumatran Islands Lowland and Montane Forests - Indonesia
(27) Philippines Moist Forests - Philippines
(28) Palawan Moist Forests - Philippines
(29) Kayah-Karen / Tenasserim Moist Forests - Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand
(30) Peninsular Malaysian Lowland and Mountain Forests - Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand
(31) Borneo Lowland and Montane Forests - Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia
(32) Nansei Shoto Archipelago Forests - Japan
(33) Eastern Deccan Plateau Moist Forests - India
(34) Naga-Manipuri-Chin Hills Moist Forests - Bangladesh, India, Myanmar
(35) Cardamom Mountains Moist Forests - Cambodia, Thailand
(36) Western Java Mountain Forests - Indonesia

Neotropical
(37) Greater Antillean Moist Forests - Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico (United States)
(38) Talamancan and Isthmian Pacific Forests - Costa Rica, Panama
(39) Chocó-Darién Moist Forests - Colombia, Ecuador, Panama
(40) Northern Andean Montane Forests - Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru
(41) Coastal Venezuela Montane Forests - Venezuela
(42) Guianan Moist Forests - Brazil, French Guiana (France), Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
(43) Napo Moist Forests - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
(44) Río Negro-Juruá Moist Forests - Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela
(45) Guayanan Highlands Forests - Brazil, Colombia, Guayana, Suriname, Venezuela
(46) Central Andean Yungas - Argentina, Bolivia, Peru
(47) Southwestern Amazonian Moist Forests - Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
(48) Atlantic Forests - Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay

Oceania
(49) South Pacific Islands Forests - American Samoa (United States), Cook Islands (New Zealand), Fiji, French Polynesia (France), Niue (New Zealand), Samoa, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna Islands (France)
(50) Hawaii Moist Forests - Hawaii (United States)

Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests

Afrotropical
(51) Madagascar Dry Forests - Madagascar

Australasia
(52) Nusu Tenggara Dry Forests - Indonesia
(53) New Caledonia Dry Forests - New Caledonia (France)

Indo-Malayan
(54) Indochina Dry Forests - Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
(55) Chhota-Nagpur Dry Forests - India

Neotropical
(56) Mexican Dry Forests - Guatemala, Mexico
(57) Tumbesian-Andean Valleys Dry Forests - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
(58) Chiquitano Dry Forests - Bolivia, Brazil
(59) Atlantic Dry Forests - Brazil

Oceania
(60) Hawaii's Dry Forests - Hawaii (United States)

Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests

Nearctic
(61) Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental Pine-Oak Forests - Mexico, United States

Neotropical
(62) Greater Antillean Pine Forests - Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti
(63) Mesoamerican Pine-Oak Forests - El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua

Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Australasia
(64) Eastern Australia Temperate Forests - Australia
(65) Tasmanian Temperate Rain Forests - Australia
(66) New Zealand Temperate Forests - New Zealand

Indo-Malayan
(67) Eastern Himalayan Broadleaf and Conifer Forests - Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal
(68) Western Himalayan Temperate Forests - Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Pakistan

Nearctic
(69) Appalachian and Mixed Mesophytic Forests - United States

Palearctic
(70) Southwest China Temperate Forests - China
(71) Russian Far East Temperate Forests - Russia

Temperate Coniferous Forests

Nearctic
(72) Pacific Temperate Rainforests - Canada, United States
(73) Klamath-Siskiyou Coniferous Forests - United States
(74) Sierra Nevada Coniferous Forests - United States
(75) Southeastern Coniferous and Broadleaf Forests - United States

Neotropical
(76) Valdivian Temperate Rainforests / Juan Fernandez Islands - Argentina, Chile

Palearctic
(77) European-Mediterranean Montane Mixed Forests - Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Morocco, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia
(78) Caucasus-Anatolian-Hyrcanian Temperate Forests - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey, Turkmenistan
(79) Altai-Sayan Montane Forests - China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia
(80) Hengduan Shan Coniferous Forests - China

Boreal Forests / Taiga

Nearctic
(81) Muskwa / Slave Lake Boreal Forests - Canada
(82) Canadian Boreal Forests - Canada

Palearctic
(83) Ural Mountains Taiga - Russia
(84) Eastern Siberian Taiga - Russia
(85) Kamchatka Taiga and Grasslands- Russia

Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands

Afrotropical
(86) Horn of Africa Acacia Savannas - Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan
(87) East African Acacia Savannas - Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda
(88) Central and Eastern Miombo Woodlands - Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
(89) Sudanian Savannas - Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda

Australasia
(90) Northern Australia and Trans-Fly Savannas - Australia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea

Indo-Malayan
(91) Terai-Duar Savannas and Grasslands - Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal

Neotropical
(92) Llanos Savannas - Colombia, Venezuela
(93) Cerrado Woodlands and Savannas - Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands

Nearctic
(94) Northern Prairie - Canada, United States

Neotropical
(95) Patagonian Steppe - Argentina, Chile

Palearctic
(96) Daurian Steppe - China, Mongolia, Russia

Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Afrotropical
(97) Sudd-Sahelian Flooded Grasslands and Savannas - Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Uganda
(98) Zambezian Flooded Savannas - Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia

Indo-Malayan
(99) Rann of Kutch Flooded Grasslands - India, Pakistan

Neotropical
(100) Everglades Flooded Grasslands - United States
(101) Pantanal Flooded Savannas - Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Montane Grasslands and Shrublands

Afrotropical
(102) Ethiopian Highlands - Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan
(103) Southern Rift Montane Woodlands - Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia
(104) East African Moorlands - Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda
(105) Drakensberg Montane Shrublands and Woodlands - Lesotho, South Africa, Swaziland

Australasia
(106) Central Range Subalpine Grasslands - Indonesia, Papua New Guinea

Indo-Malayan
(107) Kinabalu Montane Scrub - Malaysia

Neotropical
(108) Northern Andean Paramo - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
(109) Central Andean Dry Puna - Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru

Palearctic
(110) Tibetan Plateau Steppe - Afghanistan, China, India, Pakistan, Tajikistan
(111) Middle Asian Montane Steppe and Woodlands - Afghanistan, China, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
(112) Eastern Himalayan Alpine Meadows - Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal

Tundra

Nearctic
(113) Alaskan North Slope Coastal Tundra - Canada, United States
(114) Canadian Low Arctic Tundra - Canada

Palearctic
(115) Fenno-Scandia Alpine Tundra and Taiga - Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden
(116) Taimyr and Siberian Coastal Tundra - Russia
(117) Chukote Coastal Tundra - Russia

Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands and Scrub

Afrotropical
(118) Fynbos - South Africa

Australasia
(119) Southwestern Australia Forests and Scrub - Australia
(120) Southern Australia Mallee and Woodlands - Australia

Nearctic
(121) California Chaparral and Woodlands - Mexico, United States

Neotropical
(122) Chilean Matorral - Chile

Palearctic
(123) Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands and Scrub - Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canary Islands (Spain), Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Gibraltar (United Kingdom), Greece, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia, Madeira Islands (Portugal), Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Western Sahara (Morocco), Yugoslavia

Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Afrotropical
(124) Namib-Karoo-Kaokeveld Deserts - Angola, Namibia, South Africa
(125) Madagascar Spiny Thicket - Madagascar
(126) Socotra Island Desert - Yemen
(127) Arabian Highland Woodlands and Shrublands - Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

Australasia
(128) Carnavon Xeric Scrub - Australia
(129) Great Sandy-Tanami Deserts - Australia

Nearctic
(130) Sonoran-Baja Deserts - Mexico, United States
(131) Chihuahuan-Tehuacán Deserts - Mexico, United States

Neotropical
(132) Galápagos Islands Scrub - Ecuador
(133) Atacama-Sechura Deserts - Chile, Peru

Palearctic
(134) Central Asian Deserts - Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan

Mangroves

Afrotropical
(135) Gulf of Guinea Mangroves - Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria
(136) East African Mangroves - Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania
(137) Madagascar Mangroves - Madagascar

Australasia
(138) New Guinea Mangroves - Indonesia, Papua New Guinea

Indo-Malayan
(139) Sundarbans Mangroves - Bangladesh, India
(140) Greater Sundas Mangroves - Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia

Neotropical
(141) Guianan-Amazon Mangroves - Brazil, French Guiana (France), Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela
(142) Panama Bight Mangroves - Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru

 

FRESHWATER ECOREGIONS

Large Rivers

Afrotropical
(143) Congo River and Flooded Forests - Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo

Indo-Malayan
(144) Mekong River - Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Nearctic
(145) Colorado River - Mexico, United States
(146) Lower Mississippi River- United States

Neotropical
(147) Amazon River and Flooded Forests - Brazil, Colombia, Peru
(148) Orinoco River and Flooded Forests - Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela

Palearctic
(149) Yangtze River and Lakes - China

Large River Headwaters

Afrotropical
(150) Congo Basin Piedmont Rivers and Streams - Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Sudan

Nearctic
(151) Mississippi Piedmont Rivers and Streams - United States

Neotropical
(152) Upper Amazon Rivers and Streams - Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana (France), Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
(153) Upper Paraná Rivers and Streams - Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
(154) Brazilian Shield Amazonian Rivers and Streams - Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Large River Deltas

Afrotropical
(155) Niger River Delta - Nigeria

Indo-Malayan
(156) Indus River Delta - India, Pakistan

Palearctic
(157) Volga River Delta - Kazakstan, Russia
(158) Mesopotamian Delta and Marshes - Iran, Iraq, Kuwait
(159) Danube River Delta - Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, Yugoslavia
(160) Lena River Delta - Russia

Small Rivers

Afrotropical
(161) Upper Guinea Rivers and Streams - Côte D’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone
(162) Madagascar Freshwater - Madagascar
(163) Gulf of Guinea Rivers and Streams- Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, Republic of Congo
(164) Cape Rivers and Streams - South Africa

Australasia
(165) New Guinea Rivers and Streams - Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
(166) New Caledonia Rivers and Streams - New Caledonia (France)
(167) Kimberley Rivers and Streams - Australia
(168) Southwest Australia Rivers and Streams - Australia
(169) Eastern Australia Rivers and Streams - Australia

Indo-Malayan
(170) Xi Jiang Rivers and Streams - China, Vietnam
(171) Western Ghats Rivers and Streams - India
(172) Southwestern Sri Lanka Rivers and Streams - Sri Lanka
(173) Salween River - China, Myanmar, Thailand
(174) Sundaland Rivers and Swamps - Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore

Nearctic
(175) Southeastern Rivers and Streams - United States
(176) Pacific Northwest Coastal Rivers and Streams - United States
(177) Gulf of Alaska Coastal Rivers and Streams - Canada, United States

Neotropical
(178) Guianan Freshwater - Brazil, French Guiana (France), Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
(179) Greater Antillean Freshwater - Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico (United States)

Palearctic
(180) Balkan Rivers and Streams - Albania, Bosnia and Herzogovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey, Yugoslavia
(181) Russian Far East Rivers and Wetlands - China, Mongolia, Russia

Large Lakes

Afrotropical
(182) Rift Valley Lakes - Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia

Neotropical
(183) High Andean Lakes - Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru

Palearctic
(184) Lake Baikal- Russia
(185) Lake Biwa - Japan

Small Lakes

Afrotropical
(186) Cameroon Crater Lakes - Cameroon

Australasia
(187) Lakes Kutubu and Sentani - Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
(188) Central Sulawesi Lakes - Indonesia

Indo-Malayan
(189) Philippines Freshwater - Philippines
(190) Lake Inle - Myanmar
(191) Yunnan Lakes and Streams - China

Neotropical
(192) Mexican Highland Lakes - Mexico

Xeric Basins

Australasia
(193) Central Australian Freshwater - Australia

Nearctic
(194) Chihuahuan Freshwater - Mexico, United States

Palearctic
(195) Anatolian Freshwater - Syria, Turkey

MARINE ECOREGIONS

Polar Seas

Antarctic
(196) Antarctic Peninsula & Weddell Sea - Antarctic Peninsula & Weddell Sea

Arctic
(197) Bering Sea - Canada, Russia, United States
(198) Barents-Kara Sea - Norway, Russia

Temperate Shelfs and Seas

Mediterranean
(199) Mediterranean Sea - Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Gibraltar (United Kingdom), Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Yugoslavia

North Temperate Atlantic
(200) Northeast Atlantic Shelf Marine - Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom
(201) Grand Banks - Canada, St. Pierre and Miquelon (France), United States
(202) Chesapeake Bay - United States

North Temperate Indo-Pacific
(203) Yellow Sea - China, North Korea, South Korea
(204) Okhotsk Sea - Japan, Russia

Southern Ocean
(205) Patagonian Southwest Atlantic - Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay
(206) Southern Australian Marine - Australia
(207) New Zealand Marine - New Zealand

Temperate Upwelling

North Temperate Indo-Pacific
(208) Californian Current - Canada, Mexico, United States

South Temperate Atlantic
(209) Benguela Current - Namibia, South Africa

South Temperate Indo-Pacific
(210) Humboldt Current - Chile, Ecuador, Peru
(211) Agulhas Current - Mozambique, South Africa

Tropical Upwelling

Central Indo-Pacific
(212) Western Australian Marine - Australia

Eastern Indo-Pacific
(213) Panama Bight - Colombia, Ecuador, Panama
(214) Gulf of California - Mexico
(215) Galápagos Marine - Ecuador

Eastern Tropical Atlantic
(216) Canary Current - Canary Islands (Spain), Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Western Sahara (Morocco)

Tropical Coral

Central Indo-Pacific
(217) Nansei Shoto - Japan
(218) Sulu-Sulawesi Seas - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines
(219) Bismarck-Solomon Seas - Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
(220) Banda-Flores Sea - Indonesia
(221) New Caledonia Barrier Reef - New Caledonia (France)
(222) Great Barrier Reef - Australia
(223) Lord Howe-Norfolk Islands Marine - Australia
(224) Palau Marine - Palau
(225) Andaman Sea - Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand

Eastern Indo-Pacific
(226) Tahitian Marine - Cook Islands (New Zealand), French Polynesia (France)
(227) Hawaiian Marine - Hawaii (United States)
(228) Rapa Nui - Chile
(229) Fiji Barrier Reef - Fiji

Western Indo-Pacific
(230) Maldives, Chagos, Lakshadweep Atolls - Chagos Archipelago (United Kingdom), India, Maldives, Sri Lanka
(231) Red Sea - Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen
(232) Arabian Sea - Djibouti, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
(233) East African Marine - Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania
(234) West Madagascar Marine - Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte and Iles Glorieuses (France), Seychelles

Western Tropical Atlantic
(235) Mesoamerican Reef - Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico
(236) Greater Antillean Marine - Bahamas, Cayman Islands (United Kingdom), Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico (United States), Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom), United States
(237) Southern Caribbean Sea - Aruba (Netherlands), Columbia, Netherlands Antilles (Netherlands), Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela
(238) Northeast Brazil Shelf Marine - Brazil

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