Climate change problems: Acidic oceans
When CO2 dissovles into water, it forms carbonic acid. Ocean water is naturally alkaline, and has the capacity to absorb large amounts of CO2 without much change in acidity. But after absorbing nearly half the CO2 produced by human activities in the last 200 years, the oceans are finally becoming acidic.
The full effects of this are not known. However, researchers have suggested a number of damaging impacts.
For example, fish, squid, and other gilled marine animals may find it harder to "breathe" - the dissolved oxygen essential for their life becomes difficult to extract as water becomes more acidic.
And shellfish, crabs, lobsters, and corals may find it more difficult to build their calcium carbonate shells. One study predicts that the calcification rate of coral will decrease by 14-30% by 2050 as the oceans become more acidic, meaning that their rate of growth will be slowed. In some areas, calcium carbonate shells may even start to dissolve.
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