Climate change impacts in Indonesia
- Decline in rainfall in southern and increase in northern region. [10.2.2].
- Observed changes in extreme events and severe climate anomalies include droughts normally associated with ENSO years in Indonesia [10.2.3]
- Fires in peatlands of Indonesia during the 1997-98-El Niño dry season affected over 2 million ha and emitted an estimated 0.81 to 2.57 Pg C to the atmosphere. The 1997/98 ENSO event in Indonesia triggered forest and brush fires in 9.7 million hectares, with serious domestic and trans-boundary pollution consequences. [10.2.4.4].
- Projected severe flood risk with rising sea levels [10.4.3.1]
- Stability of wetlands, mangroves, and coral reefs around Asia is likely to be increasingly threatened (high confidence) [10.4.3.2, 10.6.1].
- Around 30% of Asia’s coral reefs are likely to be lost in the next 30 years due to multiple stresses and climate change. [10.4.3.2]
- The destructive effects of climate change compound the human-induced damages on the corals in this region. Substantial portion of the vast mangroves in South and Southeast Asian regions has also been reportedly lost during the last 50 years of the 20th century largely attributed to human activities [10.2.4.3]
It focuses on building the resilience and resistance of coral reefs in the Asia-Pacific region so that reef biodiversity is maintained and the reef ecosystem continues to support livelihoods.
Friends of the Reef enacts local stakeholders and decision makers to develop, test and implement plans to increase coral reef resilience to major threats in the region, including climate change. This project also aims to increase awareness and advocacy activities by highlighting stories and show-cases from previous, current, and future coral bleaching in major reef countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region then using this information to call for emission reduction in regional countries.
Friends of the Reef also provides collaborative management mechanisms, enabling the governments of major reef countries to enhance the management and network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs).