Climate change impacts in Brazil
- In northeast Brazil semi-arid and arid areas will suffer a decrease of water resources due to climate change [3.4, 3.7]. Semi- arid vegetation is likely to be replaced by arid-land vegetation. In tropical forests, species extinctions are likely [13.4]
- Computed groundwater recharge decreases dramatically by more than 70% in north-eastern Brazil (reference climate normal 1961-1990 and the 2050s) [3.4.2.].
- Increases in rainfall in southeast Brazil have had impacts on land use, crop yields and have increased flood frequency and intensity [TS4.2].
- In the future, sea level rise, weather and climatic variability and extremes modified by global warming are very likely to have impacts on mangroves [13.4.4].
- 38-45% of the plants in the Cerrado (Central Brazil savannas) committed to extinction with temperature increase of 1.7°C above pre- industrial levels[Table 4.1].
- Highly unusual extreme weather events were reported, such as Amazon drought in 2005 [TS4.2].
- Potential increases in drought conditions have been quantitatively projected during the critical growing phase, due to increasing summer temperatures and precipitation declines [4.4.5]
- In non-fragmented Amazon forests, direct effects of CO2 on photosynthesis, as well as faster forest turnover rates, may have caused a substantial increase in density of lianas over the last 2 decades [18.104.22.168].
- Conversion of natural vegetation to agricultural land drives climate change by altering regional albedo and latent heat flux, causing additional summer warming in key regions in Amazon region [4.4.1]
- Major loss of Amazon rainforest with large losses of biodiversity with 2.0-3.0°C above pre-industrial levels[Table 4.1]
- Increases in temperature and decreases in soil water would lead to replacement of tropical forest by savanna in eastern Amazonia. [13.4]
- WWF is currently setting up an initial Climate Witness project in Boca do Acre, Amazonas State, Brazil to leverage such ´traditional knowledge´.
- WWF will work with several local communites to help them develop adaptation strategies.
- The lessons learned from this first project will be expanded throughout the region, based on partnerships with community groups, NGOs and local and regional authorities.