This Manual has been written to provide an introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Southern Africa. Countries in Southern Africa are: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe. CBNRM is based on the principle that land and natural resources should be managed by those people who live with and depend on them. CBNRM does not involve wildlife only but other natural resources and community development as well. Hence aspects covered in this manual can be used by any community.