The Nepal earthquake in April 2015 and its after shocks resulted in huge loss of life, injury, and economic damage. The estimated value of damage and loss was US$7 billion, a large proportion of it housing. Other sectors that require signiﬁcant reconstruction include agriculture, education, roads, energy, tourism, industry, water and sanitation, and forestry. A rapid environmental assessment of the earthquake identiﬁed direct impacts, and also many potential risks to the environment from reconstruction. At the same time there is a great opportunity to build back not only ‘better and safer’ but also greener, ensuring healthy ecosystems for disaster risk reduction and natural resources for resilient livelihoods and economic development.