Mozambique has passed a new Fisheries Act which promotes “rights-based” fisheries management (RBM), both to ensure sustainable management and benefit local fishermen. RBM allocates fishing rights but also requires responsible management by the rights’ holders. More than 100,000 Mozambicans directly depend on fishing which supports a further half million people indirectly. Mozambique lost an estimated US$67 million in 2012 due to illegal fishing, often by foreign vessels entering Mozambique’s waters. The new law enables local communities to manage their fisheries and so gain greater socio-economic benefits, while more effectively conserving the resource. WWF has also helped Mozambique establish a marine protected area network that supports fisheries protection.