Shipwreck an ecological disaster for southern Madagascar
The Turkish vessel Gulser Ana grounded near Faux Cap in the very south of Madagascar The ship carried 39000 tons of raw Phosphates, 568 tons of fuel, 66 tons of diesel and 8000 litres of lubricant, most of which was slowly released into the Indian Ocean. The accident occurred in a whale reproduction and migratory corridor zone during the migratory season.
The report, co-funded by WWF was prepared by an interdisciplinary team of eight scientists which went to Faux Cap shortly after the accident.
While one to three whales normally beach in the area each year, nine whales beached in September alone, and some beach stretches seem to be real death zones, the report found. Villagers suffer from diseases such as respiratory problems, skin diseases and diarrhoea.
“WWF is very concerned about the possible negative impacts on biodiversity especially marine and coastal species, the threats to the ecosystems and the loss of people’s livelihood options. That’s why we decided to fund this mission,” said Harifidy Olivier Ralison, WWF Western Indian Ocean Marine Programme Coordinator.
Oil clumps cover the beach 30 km to the east and even further to the west of the shipwreck. People who were hired to clean up the area are not equipped properly and lack clothes protecting them. The collected oil clumps land in plastic bags on the beach where they are likely to burst and cause further damage, the report founds.
Almost half the 40'000 people in the area have been affected by consequences of the shipwreck, the study found with a key impact being the banning of fishing for three months.
Some 25 to 40 percent of the inhabitants depend on fishery as their source of income.
The impacts on marine species are also tragic.
"Like human beings, whales suffer from respiratory problems due to diesel odour. They come to the surface from time to time to breathe, so if they happen to surface through an oil film, this might result in the animal’s death,” Yvette Razafindrakoto, WCS (World Conservation Society) marine mammal specialist said.
Although raw phosphate is not poisonous, a huge amount of it being suddenly released into the ocean can be problematic. The expert team found signs of eutrophication in front of the shipwreck. « Phosphate acts like fertilizer, which leads to an extensive algal bloom. This depletes the oxygen in the surrounding marine environment and could cause the disappearance of species such as fish and molluscs» said Ralison.
Some common species of sand crabs were also only found sporadically and other species, such as various gastropods contained a very high amount of heavy metal, which is connected to higher mortality.
There are signs that the food chain in the area around Faux Cap is severely harmed. What this means for the coastal ecosystem and the villagers on the contaminated beaches can only be definitively estimated after the passage of some years, the report said.
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